Berkovitsa is situated on the northern slope of the Berkovska Stara Planina Mountain along the valley of the Berkovitsa River, which is a tributary to the Barzia River, at an altitude above sea level 405 m. The town was mentioned for the first time in Ottoman documents of 1491. It is the successor of an old fortified settlement on the way from Sofia to Lom.
The remains of a fortress and a church were discovered at the Kaleto elevation west of the town. The settlement was known as early as the reign of King Kaloyan, and was mentioned as a border settlement in the period of the Vidin Kingdom.
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