Kameno was first mentioned in Ottoman documents from 250 years ago under the name Kayali. That name was preserved up to 1934.
There was a large farm in the settlement during the Ottoman rule, in which mostly Bulgarian stock-breeders worked. After the National Liberation the farm's lands were bought by Bulgarian merchants and farmers. Many Bulgarians from the villages of Stara Zagora region settled here. The population increased even more after a sugar factory was built 2 km north of the settlement in 1914 and a workers' district sprang around it. Kameno was proclaimed a town in 1974.
The Prosveta Cultural Club was founded in 1927 and has been a centre of the culture, the traditions and the public spirit of the local inhabitants since it was founded in 1927. It has branches in the villages of Krastina, Vinarsko, Troyanovo, Rousokastro, Konstantinovo, Trastikovo, Polski Izvor and Livada.
There are libraries in the cultural club and its branches with a total stock of 83256 volumes 2054 readers.
There is a permanent ethnographical exhibition of household objects and fabrics, donated by inhabitants of the municipality, in the Prosveta Cultural Club.
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